Evolutionary Behavioral Ecology. Edited by: David F. Westneat and Charles Section II: The Ecology of Behavior. Chapter Foraging theory – Ian Hamilton. Behavioural ecology is the study of behavioural interactions between individuals within populations and communities, usually in an evolutionary context. It looks. Table of Contents: Sect. I. Foundations; 1. Ingenious Ideas: The History of Behavioral Ecology /; Tim R. Birkhead and Pat Monaghan; 2. Adaptation /; Charles W.


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The chapters in Evolutionary Behavioral Ecology are short, concise and to-the-point. The material is presented in an engaging and enthusiastic style - a quality that will certainly appeal to graduate students and other evolutionary behavioral ecology to the field. The presentation, format, and style are consistent and flow very well from one chapter to the next.


Credit the editors with this achievement. In other words, at equilibrium every player should play the best strategic response to each other.

When the game is two player and symmetric, each player should play the evolutionary behavioral ecology that provides the response best for it. Therefore, the ESS is considered the evolutionary end point subsequent to the interactions.

Behavioral ecology - Wikipedia

Evolutionary behavioral ecology the fitness conveyed by a strategy is influenced by what other individuals are doing the relative frequency of each strategy in the populationbehavior can be governed not only by optimality but the frequencies of strategies adopted by others and are therefore frequency dependent frequency dependence.

Behavioral evolution is therefore influenced by both the physical environment and interactions between other individuals. An example of how changes in geography can make a strategy susceptible to alternative strategies is the parasitization of the African honey bee, A.

Resource defense[ edit ] The term economic defendability was first introduced by Jerram Brown in Economic defendability states that defense of a resource have costs, such as energy expenditure or evolutionary behavioral ecology of injury, as well as benefits of priority access to the resource.

Territorial behavior arises when benefits are greater than the costs. Comparing the energetic costs a sunbird expends in a day to the extra nectar gained by defending a territory, researchers showed that birds only became territorial when they were making a net energetic profit.

In contrast, when resource availability is high, there may be so many intruders that the defender would have no time to make use of the resources made available by defense.

Behavioral ecology

Sometimes the economics of resource competition favors evolutionary behavioral ecology defense. An example is the feeding territories of the white wagtail. The white wagtails feed on insects washed up by the river onto the bank, which acts as a renewing food supply.

If any intruders harvested their territory then the prey would quickly become depleted, but sometimes territory owners tolerate a second bird, known as a satellite. The two sharers would then move out of phase with one another, resulting in decreased feeding rate but also increased defense, illustrating advantages of group living.

Ideal free distribution One of the major models used to predict the distribution of competing individuals amongst resource patches is the ideal free distribution model.

Evolutionary Behavioral Ecology

Within this model, resource patches can be of variable quality, and there is no limit to the number of individuals that can evolutionary behavioral ecology and extract resources from a particular patch. Competition within a particular patch means that the benefit each individual receives from exploiting a patch decreases logarithmically with increasing number of competitors sharing that resource patch.

The model predicts that individuals will initially flock to higher-quality patches until the costs of crowding bring the benefits of exploiting them in line with the benefits of being the only individual on the lesser-quality resource patch.

After this point has been reached, individuals will alternate between exploiting the higher-quality patches and the lower-quality patches in such a way that the average benefit for all individuals in both patches is the same. This model is ideal in that individuals have complete information about the quality of a resource patch and the number of individuals currently exploiting it, and free in that individuals are freely able to choose which resource patch to exploit.

Six fish were placed in a tank, and food items were dropped into opposite ends of the tank at different rates.

The rate of food deposition at one end was set at twice that of the evolutionary behavioral ecology end, and the fish distributed themselves with four individuals at the faster-depositing end and two individuals at the slower-depositing end. Evolutionary behavioral ecology this way, the average feeding rate was the same for all of the fish in the tank.

If one considers mates or potentials mates as a resource, these sexual partners can be randomly distributed amongst resource pools within a given environment.


Following the ideal free distribution model, suitors distribute themselves amongst the potential mates in an effort to maximize their chances or the number of potential matings. For all competitors, males of a species in most cases, there are variations in both the strategies and tactics used evolutionary behavioral ecology obtain matings.

Strategies generally refer to the genetically determined behaviors that can be described as conditional.


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